Pranayama & Respiratory system :
Various respiratory parameters improve after yoga & pranayama. A significant increase in FVC, FEV, FEV1, PEER, increase in the vital capacity, tidal volume increase in expiratory and inspiratory pressures, breath holding time and decease in the respiratory rate is documented to help symptoms of weekly attacks, and scores for drug treatment, Improved exercise tolerance, faster recovery after exercise, decrease in inhaler use, and improvements in bronchial provocation response has also been documented (32-36). Pranayama is believed to decrease the anxiety element as well. Since asthma is a psychosomatic and chronic diseases, a psychosomatic imbalance with an increased vagal tone is one of its various etiopathogenesis. Yoga therapy may first bring internal awareness, correct autonomic imbalance, control the breathing, improve the immune status and alter physiological variables. Even one week after yoga therapy, improvements in ventillatory functions in asthmatics have been observed. This could be due to reductions in sympathetic reactivity and relaxation of voluntary inspiratory and expiratory muscles. Both transcendental meditation and Yoga have proven to be effective alternative medicines for controlling symptoms of asthma (37-38). Yoga is also valuable in the treatment of COPD (39).
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- 2- Feuerstein, Georg, "The Yoga Sutra of Patanjali", Rochester, vt. ; Inner.traditions, 1989. page 91
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- 4- Umak, Nagendra, R, NagarathnaR, Vaidehi S, SeethalakshmiR. (1989) The integrated approach of yoga a therpeutic tool for mentally retarded children : a one year controlled study. Journal of mental deficiency research 33: 415-421.
- 5- Borkar AS, Pednekar JR (2003) Effect of pranayam on visual and auditory reaction time. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 47 (2) : 229-230.
- 6- Ananda Balayogi Bhavnani, Madanmohan, Udupa K (2003) Acute effect of Mukh Bhastrika (A Yogic Bellows type breathing) on reaction time. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 47 (3) : 297-300.
- 7- Naveen KV, Nagendra HR, NagarathnaR, Telles S (1997) Breathing though a particular nostril improves spatial memory scores without lateralised effects. Psychol Rep 81:555-561.
- 8- Jella SA (1993) The effect of unilateral forced nostril breathing on cognitive performance. Int. J Neuroscience 73 :61-68.
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- 15- Telles S, and. Desiraju T (1991) Oxygen consumption during pranayama type of very slow rate breathing. Indian J Med Res 94:357-363.
- 16- Janakiramaiah N, Gangadhar BN, Naga Venkatesha Murthy PJ, Harish MG, subbakrishan DK, Vedamurthachar A (2000) Antidepressant efficacy of sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) ion melancholia : a randomized comparision with ekectroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and imipramine. J Affect Disord 57 (1-3): 255-59.
- 17- Wood C (1993) Mood change and perception of vitality : a comparison of the effects of relazation, visualization and yoga. Journal of the royal society of medicine 86 : 254-258.
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- 19- Telles S, Desiraju T (1992) Heart rate alterations in various types of pranayama Indian J Physiol, Pharmacol 36(4) :287-288.
- 20- Madan Mohan, Saravanane C, surange SG, Thombre DP, chakrabarty AS (1986) Effect of yoga type breathing on heart rate and cardiac axis of normal subjects. Indian J Physiol, Pharmacol 30 (4) : 334-340.
- 21- Shannahoff-Khalasa DS (1993). The effects of unilateral forced nostril breathing on the heart. Inten J Neuroscience 73:47-60.
- 22- Raghuraj P, Ramakrishna G, Nagendra HR. Telles S (1998) Effect of two selected yogic breathing techniques on heart rate variability. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 42 (4) ;467-472.
- 23- Nagarathna R, Nagendra Hr (1985) Yoga for bronchial asthma : a controlled study . BMJ 291 : 1077-1079.
- 24- Singh (1987) Kunjal : a nonspecific Protective factor in management of bronchial asthma. J Of Asthma 24 (3) : 183-186.
- 25- Nagarathna r, Nagendra HR., Seethalakshmi R (1991) Yoga-chair breathing for acute episodes of bronchial asthma. Lungs India ix, 4;141-144.
- 26- Satyaprabha TN, Murthy H, Murthy BTC (2001) Efficacy of naturopathy and yoga in Bronchial asthma – A self-controlled matched scientific study. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol : 45 (1) : 80-86.
- 27- Telles S, and. Desiraju T (1991) Oxygen consumption during pranayama type of very slow rate breathing. Indian J Med Res 94 : 357-363.
- 28- Joshi N, Joshi VD, Gokhale LV (1992) Effect of short-term 'Pranayam' practice o breathing rate and ventilatory functions of lung. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 36 (2) : 105-108.
- 29- Telle S, Desiraju T (1992) Heart rate and respiratory changes accompanying yogic conditions of single though and thoughtless states. Indian J Physiol, Pharmacol 36 (4) : 293-294.
- 30- Madan Mohan, Saravanane C, surange SG, Thombre DP, chakrabarty AS (1986) Effect of yoga type breathing on heart rate and cardiac axis of normal subjects. Indian J Physiol, Pharmacol 30 (4) : 334-340.
- 31- Stanescu DC, Nemery B, Veriter, Marechal C (1981) Pattern of breathing and ventilatory response to CO2 in subjects practicing hath-yoga. J Appl Physiol 51 : 1625-1629.
- 32- Gopal KS, Bhatnagar OP, subramanian N, Nishith SD (1973) Effect of Yogasans and pranayama on blood pressure, pulse rate and some respiratory functions, Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 17 (3): 273-276.
- 33- Nagarathna R, Nagendra Hr (1985) Yoga for bronchial asthma : a controlled study . BMJ 291: 1077-1079.
- 34- Yadav RK, Das S (2001) Effect of yogic practice on pulmonary functions in young females. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 46(4): 493-496.
- 35- Tandon MK (1978) Adjunct treatment with yoga in chronic severe airway obstruction. Thorax 33:514-517.
- 36- Singh v, Wisniewki A, Britton J, Tattersfield A (1990) Effect of yoga breathing exercises (pranayama) on airway reactivity in subjects with asthma. The Lancet 335:1381-1383.
- 37- Lane DJ (1991) Alternative and complementary medicine for asthma. Thorax ,46:787-797.
- 38- Wilson AF, Honsberger R, chiu JT, Novey HS (1975) Transcendental meditation and asthma Respiration 32:74-80.
- 39- Behera, D (1998) Yoga therapy in chronic bronchitis. J Assoc physicians of Indian 46 (2): 207-208.
Dr. Amit Kumar - BAMS, D.H. (K.G.M.C ) is Working with Divya Yog Mandir (Trust) / Divya Pharmacy Haridwar founded by Pujya Swami Ramdev Ji Maharaj , as Consultant Physician & Research Officer. He can be contacted at - amit@ ayurveda-foryou.com
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