RAGA -TIME ASSOCIATION
The following excerpt from the book "Ragopedia Volume 1 by Pandit Shiv Dayal Batish and Ashiwn Batish," states that:
One of the unique characteristics of Indian music is the assignment of definite times of the day and night for performing Raga melodies. It is believed that only in this period the Raga appears to be at the height of its melodic beauty and majestic splendor. There are some Ragas which are very attractive in the early hours of the mornings; others which appeal in the evenings, yet others which spread their fragrance only near the midnight hour.
This connection of time of the day or night, with the Raga or Raginis is based on daily cycle of changes that occur in our own body and mind which are constantly undergoing subtle changes in that different moments of the day arouse and stimulate different moods and emotions.
Each Raga or Ragini is associated with a definite mood or sentiment that nature arouses in human beings. The ancient musicologists were particularly interested in the effects of musical notes, how it effected and enhanced human behavior. Music had the power to cure, to make you feel happy, sad, disgusted and so on. Extensive research was carried out to find out these effects. This formed the basis of time theory as we know it today.
It is believed that the human body is dominated by the three Doshas - Kaph , Pitta and Vata . These elements work in a cyclic order of rise and fall during the 24 hour period. Also, the reaction of these three elements differ with the seasons. Hence it is said that performing or listening to a raga at the proper allotted time can affect the health of human beings.
Raga and Day Time
The following schedule will summarize the specific time periods.
The 24 hour period is divided into 8 beats(Prahar) each three hours long, as follows:
- 4 a.m. - 7 a.m. 4th beat of the night. Early Dawn; Dawn (before sunrise);
- 7 a.m. - 10 a.m. first beat of the day. Daybreak; Early Morning; Morning;
- 10 a.m. - 1 p.m. 2nd beat of the day. Late Morning; Noon; Early Afternoon;
- 1 p.m. - 4 p.m. 3rd beat of the day. Afternoon; Late Afternoon;
- 4 p.m. - 7 p.m. 4th beat of the day. Evening Twilight; Dusk (sunset);
- 7 p.m. - 10 p.m. first beat of the night. Evening; Late Evening;
- 10 p.m. - 1 a.m. 2nd beat of the night. Night; Midnight;
- 1 a.m. - 4 a.m. 3rd beat of the night. Late Night
Similarly Everyday two cycles of change pass through our body, each bringing a Vata, Pitta, or Kapha predominance.
The approximate times of these cycles are as follows:
- 6 A.M. to 10 A.M. - Kapha
- 10 A.M. to 2 P.M. - Pitta
- 2 P.M. to 6 P.M. - Vata
- 6 P.M. to 10 P.M. - Kapha
- 10 P.M. to 2 P.M. - Pitta
- 2 A.M to 6 P.M. - Vata
Raga and Ritu(Seasons)There are Ragas associated with the rainy season,Varsha (Raga Megha and Raga Malhar), the autumn season,Basant (Raga Basant) and the spring season (Raga Bahar). Seasonal Ragas can be sung and played any time of the day and night during the season allotted to them. The obligation of time in case of such melodies is relaxed.
Vasanta Ritu (Spring Season)
In this season, increased kapha is liquified by the heat of sun which causes diminished agni (digestive activity) causing diseases
Grishma Ritu (Summer Season)
In this season, Sunrays become powerful. Kapha decreases vata increases day by day
Sharat Ritu (Autumn Season)
Sudden exposed to sunlight after cold season aggravates pita.
Raga and Ritu(Seasons) Association :-
Verious Ragas and there Performance Timings:
Our special thanks to Pandit Ashwin Kumar Batish for giving us permission to add excerpts from "Ragopedia - Exotic Scales of North India by Pandit Shiv Dayal Batish and Ashwin Batish" into this article. www.ragopedia.com